Neurons are the foundations of the sophisticated neural networks. Neurotransmitters such as dopamine, glutamate, and GABA, are crucial signaling molecules for the delivery of neuronal signals. Neurons synthesize/import neurotransmitters, and store them in presynaptic vesicles. A neuronal impulse is propagated by the vesicles released from presynaptic neurons.
Neurotransmitter receptors function via various G-protein coupled and G-protein independent mechanisms that activate downstream intracellular signaling pathways such as cAMP/PKA, PI3K/AKT, phospholipase A2, and phospholipase C pathways. For instance, dopamine receptors act through adenylate cyclase to activate PKA and other signaling molecules, thereby mediate gene expression through the actions of CREB and other transcription factors. Other neurotransmitters such as NMDAR or AMPAR are associated with ion channels that control flux of Ca2+ and Na+, thus propagating the action potential across the post-synaptic neuron.
Dysfunctions in GABAergic/glutamatergic/serotonergic/dopaminergic pathways result in a broad range of neurological disorders such as chronic pain, neurodegenerative diseases, and insomnia, as well as mental disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and addiction.
- A3316 Clemizole hydrochlorideTarget: Histamine H1 Receptors|TRPC channelSummary: H1组胺受体拮抗剂
- B8681 Fenoldopam (mesylate)
- A1053 amyloid A protein fragment [Homo sapiens]Summary: 血浆中与HDL相关的载脂蛋白
- A1033 [Ser25] Protein Kinase C (19-31)Summary: PKC底物
- A1032 AdrenorphinSummary: 内源μ/κ阿片受体激动剂
- A1031 Myelin Basic Protein (68-82), guinea pigSummary: 对神经髓鞘的形成具有重要作用。
- A1028 Cadherin Peptide, avianSummary: 在细胞粘附中发挥作用。
- A1023 Laminin (925-933)2 CitationSummary: 细胞外基质糖蛋白
- A1022 GTP-Binding Protein Fragment, G alphaSummary: GTP结合蛋白片段，Gα，将GTP水解为GDP。
- A1017 Adrenorphin, Free AcidSummary: μ/κ opioid 受体激动剂