Glucose metabolism plays a significant role in cell proliferation, growth, survival, and tumorgenesis. Hormones such as insulin regulate the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Insulin binding to the insulin receptor (IR) activates the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) protein, followed by the activation of PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 signaling pathways, leads to the translocation of Glut4 vesicles, glucose uptake, cell proliferation and survival. Abnormal insulin signaling is implicated in diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative disease etc.
Serine/threonine kinase AMPK upregulates glucose uptake by promoting the expression and function of glucose transporters. AMPK is activated by increased AMP/ATP ratio, resulting from cellular and environmental stress, e.g. low glucose, heat shock, hypoxia and ischemia. AMPK activation positively modulates signaling transductions that refill ATP levels. Moreover, it also stimulates catabolic processes such as fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis through inhibition of ACC and activation of PFK2. AMPK negatively regulates various proteins which are important to ATP-consuming mechanisms, e.g. mTORC2, glycogen synthase, SREBP-1, and TSC2, causing the downregulation/inhibition of gluconeogenesis and glycogen, lipid and protein synthesis.
- B8552 SR33805Summary: 有效的 Ca2+ 通道阻滞剂
- B8551 p-MPPI hydrochlorideSummary: 选择性的5-HT1A受体拮抗剂
- B8545 ML188Summary: 选择性的非共价SARS CoV 3CLpro抑制剂
- B8540 TBK1/IKKε-IN-5Summary: 双重TBK1和IKKε抑制剂
- B8538 Adenosine amine congenerSummary: 选择性A1腺苷受体激动剂
- B8537 MavacoxibSummary: 有效的选择性环氧合酶-2 (COX-2) 抑制剂
- B8523 DHODH-IN-11Summary: 一种二氢乳清酸脱氢酶 (DHODH) 的弱抑制剂
- B8504 Mitochonic acid 5Summary: 与线粒体结合并改善肾小管和心肌细胞损伤
- B8500 EprobemideSummary: 可逆的、非竞争性的单胺氧化酶A (MAO-A)抑制剂
- B8496 LongdaysinSummary: 酪蛋白激酶抑制剂