In vitro transcription of capped mRNA with modified nucleotides and Poly(A) tail
Tyramide Signal Amplification (TSA)
TSA (Tyramide Signal Amplification), used for signal amplification of ISH, IHC and IC etc.
Phos Binding Reagent Acrylamide
Separation of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated proteins without phospho-specific antibody
Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8)
A convenient and sensitive way for cell proliferation assay and cytotoxicity assay
SYBR Safe DNA Gel Stain
Safe and sensitive stain for visualization of DNA or RNA in agarose or acrylamide gels.
Protect the integrity of proteins from multiple proteases and phosphatases for different applications.
Information here is from (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate ((R)-2HG) instead of Disodium (R)-2-Hydroxyglutarate. (R)-2HG inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase . The IC50 value has not been found.
ATP synthase containing a rotary motor involved in energy conversion in organisms. It produces ATP from inorganic phosphate and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). It functions using the energy from a respiration- or photosynthesis-generated transmembrane proton-motive force .
Data showed that (R)-2HG accumulated in human cancers carrying mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 genes. In IDH1 mutant cells, the inhibition of (R)-2HG to ATP synthase was mirrored. This indicated that (R)-2HG has a growth-suppressive function. In glioblastoma cells, consistently, the inhibition of (R)-2HG to ATP synthase is sufficient for tumor cell killing and growth arrest under glucose limitation conditions, e.g., when ketone bodies are supplied for energy instead of glucose. In cells, treatment with (R)-2HG decreased the rate of ATP synthase-linked oxygen consumption .
The normal cellular concentration of (R)-2HG is 200 mM. At this concentration, ATP synthase is unlikely to be significantly inhibited by (R)-2HG. In glioma patients with IDH mutations, (R)-2HG accumulates to 10-100 times of normal levels, and ATP synthase would be possible to be inhibited. (R)-2HG extended the lifespan of C. elegans, in a similar way of α-KG. Data showed that 2-HG increased lifespan ATP-synthase-dependently .
. Fu X, Chin RM, Vergnes L, et al. 2-Hydroxyglutarate inhibits ATP synthase and mTOR signaling. Cell metabolism, 2015, 22(3): 508-515.
. Stock D, Leslie AGW and Walker JE. Molecular architecture of the rotary motor in ATP synthase. Science, 1999, 286(5445): 1700-1705.
|Physical Appearance||A solid|
|Storage||Store at -20°C|
|Solubility||≥9.1mg/mL in H2O|
|Chemical Name||sodium (R)-2-hydroxypentanedioate|